Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Mobile Banking Factors why consumers are resisitng the new technology - Essay Example Hence, better technology will lead to quicker and more enjoyable mobile transactions. This report focuses on the customer response to mobile banking in California, US. Through one-on-one interviews with 100 young consumers (ages ranging from 15 to 25 years old) the nature of consumer resistance to mobile banking is explored and explained. This strategic report also offers a hopeful examination of the future prospects of mobile phone banking applications in California. Mobile banking represents a daring and emerging innovation with currently relatively low usage rates among American consumers. However, this segment is expected to have a high usage rates in the future with the implementation of improved features by the service providers. The first applications of mobile banking were implemented in the mid-nineties which enabled bank customers to make payments and request account balances via mobile phone as an SMS service. However, compared to Internet banking in developed countries, mobile banking adoption rates in developed and developing countries have been rather low and slow. When mobile phone banking was first launched in the US market in mid-2002, the US consumers had a lukewarm response to the new technology during that time. Only a few percentage of the customers were open to mobile phone banking. ... 9.2.1. Mobile Banking Questions 14 List of Tables 1. Introduction Mobile banking represents a daring and emerging innovation with currently relatively low usage rates among American consumers. However, this segment is expected to have a high usage rates in the future with the implementation of improved features by the service providers. The first applications of mobile banking were implemented in the mid-nineties which enabled bank customers to make payments and request account balances via mobile phone as an SMS service. However, compared to Internet banking in developed countries, mobile banking adoption rates in developed and developing countries have been rather low and slow. When mobile phone banking was first launched in the US market in mid-2002, the US consumers had a lukewarm response to the new technology during that time. Only a few percentage of the customers were open to mobile phone banking. Approximately, only 4% of US online consumers with a mobile phone use a feature of mobile banking. Another 5% of the consumers were interested, however, the remaining 72% of the customers were not interested at all. (Meyer, Thomas, 2007) 1.1. Background of the StudyMobile phone banking did not have a great beginning in the US banking market. For instance, the Wells Fargo shut down its mobile phone banking offering in 2002 give a skeptic response from the bank customers. In addition, Forrester Research found out that only 10% of American consumers indicated that they would consider mobile banking, versus the 35% or so who already bank online. The customer resistance for mobile phone banking has been persistent. A common reason for this is that the bank customers are conservative and security conscious with respect to their money. These
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Individual - Case Study Example urship and innovation challenges faced by the founder and the co-founder at the initial stages of operation and the strategies adopted by them to expand their business in the international markets (Stokes andÃ Wilson, 2010, p.65). Jeroen Glabeek and Gilbert Gooijers, the founder and the co-founder were classmates and shared same interest in academics during their college days with the activity of radio broadcasting as a commercial business. Glabeek and Gooijers considered the proposal of their customers to send ringtones and sms to the overseas European markets such as Spain and tying up with the telecom service providers in those countries. In the course of their step towards innovation and entrepreneurship, they also considered their failed venture in the past in Poland. Taking into account the prospects of the international markets, the company considered at the development of software in the mobile phones of the customers all over the world (Kumar, 2008, p.57). In order to attr act customers, they started to make their customers aware of the wide reach of the sms service and the response of the people after reading their sms. The clients of CM were able to send the plan of their activity to their customers and the overwhelming response of the customers led to the increase in sms traffic over the years as shown in Exhibit 1. The increase in the sms traffic and the growth of business reflected in the financial statements of the company. From the time the company started in 2000, the company has moved from a net loss position in 2000 to a net profit position of Ã¢â ¬1233602 in 2009. The income statement of CM over the years has been given in Exhibit 2. The decision criteria for success and sustainability of CMÃ¢â¬â¢s business are the analysis of the entrepreneurial and innovative measures in the business of sms service. The success and sustainability is decided by the impact of measures taken to meet the challenges in the competitive industry, the impact on the
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Amphawa Floating Market Of Benefit Tourism Essay Heritage cultural tourism defined as the nostalgia tourism that places special emphasis on heritage and cultural attractions. Cultural tourism began to be recognized as a distinct product category in the late 1970s when tourism marketers realized that some people traveled specially to gain a deeper understanding of the culture or a heritage destination This paper concentrates on the area of Amphawa community. This community is composed of many cultural characteristics and themes which relate to the history of the area, cultures and lifestyle of Amphawa community, current situation problems and effects of tourism. Even though the benefits from tourism brought the development of infrastructure and the income from tourists expenditure, rapid development of community tourism may led to troubles and conflicts. Many people who came from Bangkok and neighbor had been interested in this area, so the local community had been adapted for new tourism. Cultural tourism with local people participating would make them realize the tourism management which could lead the community to real cultural tourism. Tourism has become the worlds largest industry as the tourism marketplace has become increasing dramatically, there has been a trend toward increased specialization among tourists with cultural tourism has becoming the fastest growing segment of the industry (Huh, Uysal, and McCleary, 2006). Cultural tourism began to be recognized as a distinct product category in the late 1970s when tourism marketers realized that some people traveled specially to gain a deeper understanding of the culture or a heritage destination (McKercher and du Cros, 2002). Sigala and Leslie (2005) define heritage and cultural tourism as the segment of the tourism industry that places special emphasis on heritage and cultural attractions The Travel Industry Association of America (Domestic Travel Market Report, 2003) also listed visiting historic destinations as one of the top five activities for tourists in North America. Furthermore, Andersen, Prentice and Guerin (1997) identified the important attributes of cultural tourism in Denmark as being castles, gardens, museums, and historical buildings, when tourists made a decision to visit the country. In a similar in China, Sofield (1998) identified history, culture, traditional festivals, historical events, beautiful scenic heritage, historical sites, architecture, folk arts (music, dancing, craftwork) and folk culture villages as the attributes of significance. Therefore, the increasing number of tourists and the corresponding trend towards cultural tourism that action must be taken to deal with the issues associated with quality tourism and the protection of a countrys cultural heritage places from improper and over-use. Moreover, the cultural tourism need to awareness of the variety of cultural heritage places and the preservation of environmental equilibrium in order to develop a compatible tourism (An Ethics Charter for Cultural Tourism, 2000). Tourism may strengthen some aspect by using culture and diminish others, even to the point of disappearance. The changing has relationship between cultural expressions under the influence of a change causing agent, such as tourism. However, it is possible that under the influence of an agent of cultural change, an expression will be substituted or adopted. The result can be no effect on other cultural expressions or varying degrees of effect (Carter and Beeton, 2004). In this paper, Amphawa community is located in Samutsongkhram province. It is an interesting case to study because of its real attributes of local settlement and community and their evolution through time from the early Rattanakosin period (the late 17th century) to the present. This community is composed of many cultural characteristics and themes which relate to the history of the area, ways of life, and ways of living. The aims of this paper are to study and analyze both positive and negative impacts of cultural tourism to Amphawa floating market destinations in areas of local history, attractions, economy and community. In additions, the paper looks for some solutions to resolve problems of cultural tourism to push tourism will become real cultural tourism that offer a lot of benefits to local community. Cultural Tourism For cultural tourism in India, it is prevailing factor of the tourism segment, because India has the land of ancient history, heritage, and culture. The government of India has launched the Incredible India campaign and this has led to the growth of culture tourism in India. One can see the influence of various cultures in dance, music, festivities, architecture, traditional customs, food, and languages. This richness in culture goes a long way in projecting India as the ultimate cultural tourism destination given boost to tourism in culture in India. Rajasthan is the most popular. The reason for this is that Rajasthan is famous for its rich cultural heritage. The state is renowned for many magnificent palaces and forts which showcase the rich cultural heritage of Rajasthan. The various folk songs and music also reflect the cultural heritage of Rajasthan. A large number of festivals and fairs are held in Rajasthan such as the camel festival, Marwar festival, and Pushkar festival (Cultural Tourism India). For cultural tourism in New Zealand, it provides tourists a unique experience into the indigenous people of New Zealand. Maori people live throughout New Zealand, and many are actively involved with keeping their culture and language alive. Within Maori community has focus on social, cultural and spiritual life. Traditional carvers also help to keep Maori culture alive by creating intricate works that pay respect to the past. Every pieces carved tells a story, which can be read by those who know how. Maori Tourism in New Zealand started over 130 years ago with local Maori guiding visitors through the Central Plateau region of (Aotearoa) New Zealand. Tourists can enjoy a Maori experience with a variety of options. The Maori people are the indigenous people of Aotearoa (New Zealand) and first arrived here in waka hourua (voyaging canoes) from their ancestral homeland of Hawaiki over 1000 years ago. Today, Maori has over 14 percent of the population. Their language and culture has a major impact on all facets of New Zealand life (NewZealand Tourism Guide). The Maoris mask is shown in the figure 1. Figure 1 The Maoris mask Source: http://www.tourism.net.nz/new-zealand/about-new-zealand/maori-culture.html For Thailand, it is a country of scenic diversity and ancient traditions, of tranquil temples and Thai rural style excitement. With independent history, it has managed to absorb a variety of cultural influences and blend them into something uniquely and memorably Thai. Each region of Thailand offers a distinctive experience for the traveler in search of discovery. In this case concentrate on the area of Amphawa community located on Samutsongkhram province. History of Samutsongkhram Figure 2 Samutsongkhram provincial Logo Figure 3 Samutsongkhram tourist map Source: http://www.tour.co.th/th/map.php Samutsongkhram province is located in the lower part of the central region of Thailand. The former name of Samutsongkhram province is Maeklong. Its name comes from the attribution of geography, which is the location that Maeklong River runs through. This river is very important to this province. Samutsongkhram province is around 72 kilometers west of Bangkok. It is assumed that Samutsongkhram might have been established in the Ayuddhaya period. The modern Samutsongkham province is a little province, 416 square kilometers, and is divided into 3 administrative districts. There are Muang, Bangkhonthi and Amphawa districts. There are around 200,000 people in this province which is composed of 36 sub-districts or 278 villages (Samutsongkhram). History of Amphawa community This paper concentrates on the area of Amphawa community. Originally, Amphawa area was named Kwang Bang Chang. There is no evidence to prove that when Kwang Bang Chang was formed. Even though it was a small community in the past, it was prosperous with commercial and agricultural activities. There was rich traditional riverside living and classical architecture. It could be said that it was an important source of food and commodity for the capital city as Krung Thonburi and Bangkok. Most settlements are established near a waterway, which is the traditional settlement style of gardener communities, although, in the present, there is more convenient transportation systems such as main roads and sub roads. This style of settlement has been preserved as a unique characteristic of gardener communities showing that their way of living depended on rivers and canals. There was a cluster of structures at the side of Amphawa canal. The densest settlement was in the business area, which was the center part of the town. This was located near the Amphawa canal mouth. Usually, a community settlement was spread two-sides along the banks of the Mae Klong River, which is a major water route. In addition, there are small canals, creeks and irrigation canals such as the Amphawa canal, Bangjak canal and Dow-dung canal, which all join the Mae Klong River. As in many Thai provinces the spiritual center for Thais in this community has always been the temple. On the Amphawa canal there were plenty of boats which sold local fruits, vegetables, clothes, food and products necessary for living. At the mouth of the Amphawa canal there was a riverside single house having its cultivatable area along the canal. The Amphawa community was established at the intersection of Mae Klong River and Amphawa canal which is about 20 Km. from the Gulf of Thailand (Tourism Thailand). Characteristic of Amphawa floating market Amphawa floating market is located in SamutSongkram Province. Amphawa floating marketÃ is an afternoon floating market by the canal near Wat Amphawan Chetiyaram and brings visitors back to a rural Thai lifestyle of years gone by. On Friday, Saturday and Sunday, during 12.00 p.m. 8.00 p.m., the Amphawa Canal is occupied by vendors who pack their boats with food and drinks, such as fried sea mussel, noodles, coffee, O-liang (iced black coffee), sweets, etc. Visitors can enjoy a comfortable atmosphere and music broadcast by the community members, explores the market, have food, and hire a boat to see fireflies at night (Amphawa Floating Market, Thailand). Figure 4 Amphawa Floating Market, Thailand Source: http://www.amphawafloatingmarket.com/ Amphawa is the most significant community in Samut Songkharm province in terms of role model for the local communitys involvement in the community-based tourism that had beginning of community-based tourism (CBT) in Thailand since early 1990s (Richards, 2009). In 2008, there were 558,326 visitors who traveled to Samut Songkharm. Being short distance from Bangkok, tourists can make one day trip to travel to the Amphawa. The most preferred activities for tourist, was to stay in home stay and an evening trip to watch fireflies. The length of stay was average 2.63 days for Thais and 4.40 days for foreigners. The Expenditures per day were approximately 2,866 Thai baht. There were 96 homes stay and resorts that increased by 75% from 2007 (Office of Tourism Department, 2008). In addition, diverse biodiversity attracts tourists to come and travel about the nature such as fireflies that live in Lam Poo Tree along the canal of Amphawa. These natural and environment has been created as a tour program for tourists to visit and have sightseeing. Tourist can contact the counter to book the tour at the floating market themselves which cost 60 Baht per person (Amphawa Floating Market, Thailand). This community is also significant artists of traditional Thai arts and musical instruments prosper. In particular, it is generally acknowledged that the best coconuts for making fiddle are grown in this area. This is also a renowned center of excellent handicrafts made in time-honored fashion. The best way to get around in Ampawa is to walk or ride a bike because the roads and bridges are narrow. Most home stays have bikes available for hiring to guests at a nominal fee. Most of tourists are Thais, and ages under 25years. The main transportation is personal car. The purpose of visit is holiday, and they are independent tourists (TAT, 2008). This is playing as the heart of CBT, both as a movement and a shared their cultures for hosts and guests (Richards, 2009). According to UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Award (2008) Amphawa canal community has successfully achieved public-private cooperation in the preservation of heritage structures in Thailand. This award demonstrates recognition of the cultural significance of Amphawa and an appreciation of both the architectural and living heritage of the historic canal community. Figure 5 Amphawa canal community Source: http://www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=8109 All tourism involves the consumption of experiences and products (McKercher and du Cros, 2002). Cultural tourists want to consume a variety of cultural experience therefore cultural heritage assets must be converted into cultural tourism products that tourist can utilize. The transformation process should be sustainable management of the cultural product. Cultural heritage places are usually designated by communities for tourism potential. However, it is undeniable that cultural attractions are also for cultural tourism. However, since the Amphawa floating market has prospered progressively and reputation. The number of the home stay increased each year to support demand of tourists. Even though the benefits from tourism brought the development of infrastructure and the income from tourists expenditure, rapid development of community tourism may led to troubles and conflicts. The advantage impact by tourism Social Advantages According to ATTA (2010) tourism can help communities as tourism industry provides high standard of local people living. As a result of causing the income distribution and distribution of employment opportunities to local people directly such as employment in various business tourism industries as hotel staffs, transport staffs and local guides etc. Including creating career indirectly as people who delivering newspapers to the hotel, textile workers, banker etc. Also it provides a comfort and convenient from the development of infrastructure tourism. This is an important outgrowth that the local people will be able more comfort and convenient along with tourism such as main road, electricity, water supply and buses etc. Furthermore, more and more tourists come that are inspiration of local people for preservation and cherish their owe culture as immaculate condition. All of Developing, managing and operating CBT (Richards, 2009) helps local people to develop new skills and knowledge which can assist them to communicate and to support effectively in support of their traditional cultures and ways of life. Economic Advantages The local tourism industry help reduce migration of population flows to capital that the nature of the local people if they could make money from the settlement and occupation of their hometown, they will not immigrate to another one. Also tourism gives the career opportunities in retail shop with local people. This may be an independent career such as local restaurant, souvenir shop and household industry. Moreover, the plentiful resources within community can bring to apply convert into souvenirs and also support folk wisdom. Include making another new career in local community. There are many tourist attractions that gain economical benefits from tourism. As a local resident of Plai-Pong-Pang Thai house tourism village, Samutsongkram province has been increased their revenue and job opportunities from tourism industry after applying cultural and eco tourism to promote their village (Wattanasukchai, 2002 and Sungwarn, 2003). The disadvantage impact by tourism Environmental disadvantages The number visitors have grown to more than 10,000 a week and the local environment is suffering as a result. Most of wastewater problem caused by effluent from hotel or home stays accommodation, followed by wastewater from restaurants and places of tourist attractions. Some places discharge wastewater directly to local river or cannel without any treatment before. This is causing water pollution. Moreover, the problems of rotting garbage, annoying noise levels and an increase in the cost of living in Amphawa (The Nation travel, 2008). All attractions have waste problems as garbage in different levels. That depends on cooperation between a host community and tourists who travel in reasonable way. Furthermore, Thai farming and fishing families who rely on earth, forest and water to survive often have to compete with the tourism industry for access to land, sea and other essential resources. This makes life even more challenging (Richards, 2009). Traveling receive a large number of tourists, mostly Westerners whove taken a motor-boat ride from the Chao Phraya River to see the exotic lifestyle of those living along Amphawa canal, which has served as a scene for the famous classic. This is bringing a great economic opportunity for the local community. However, this is the biggest problem right now for local people by deafening motor-boat noise that continues all day long from morning till evening for sightseeing firefly, in addition to the deprivation of privacy. A few years ago some angry villagers chose to chop down some nearby trees to dispel the fireflies (Bangkok Post, 2010). Economic disadvantages The career opportunity has changing from farmers to work in hotels, merchants or tour operators. That generate agriculture production will decrease dramatically while a demand increased. Due to the agriculture less profitable than business travels or hotels consistent with more number of tourists come to Amphawa. That makes people turn more interest to businesses hotels or home stay. This is a cause produces cost of living increase. Social disadvantages Many host communities, especially indigenous communities, trade cultural expressions for benefits that tourism can provide. As such, cultural expressions are a direct and observable link between a host culture and the tourist. Tourism may act on cultural character to effect change the community. Cultural attractions have a role in a community and provide benefits such as healing economy, spiritual enrichment and maintenance of social order (Carter and Beeton, 2004). However, there are people feel tourists have privileged that cause produce decrease friendly attitude to tourists and also increasing social conflict within community. Such as some people are against for sightseeing firefly tourism between boat operators that cause by tourism that could make money from tourists. This result show local people lack the voice and influence needed to negotiate a fair deal from tourism development (Richards, 2009). Also there is decrease local awareness of the need for sustainable development because even more visitors that means more income too. In addition, the success in home stay business has the impact for the community management. Increasing number of tourists caused the demand for the construction of home stay. Land-use pattern changed to serve for tourism, and caused increase in real property price in Amphawa. Without the awareness from stakeholder, purity of Amphawa will be destroyed. No control and standard makes community lost direction to use tourism as a tool to improve the quality of life. Environment and natural resources will be destroyed for commercial exploitation without concerning and restoration as well. Living Style Change Amphawa is crowded with people and cars on Friday-Sunday. Amphawa community is going to change and its integrity is threatened by tourism. However, this community still has living, prosperous entity to interpret for, and present to, visitors. It is in effect on outdoor living museum and cultural landscape. It represents living history with all its attractions for visitors which is full of cultural collective things related to Amphawa people and the prosperous time in the past. The issue facing the community is that of encouraging tourism and change without destroying or overwhelming the heritage value of what is there. The inclusive and cooperation of the local community is vital in future planning (Amphawa District, 2006). Some residents are eager to be part of tourism development and gain some of the benefits they are entitled to. Some owners modified their homes to serve as souvenir shops. There is an art gallery and cafe, such as Baan Silapin, which is affiliated to the Association of Siamese Architects and other conservation agencies (Bangkok Post, 2010). However, improvement of sustainable tourism wont happen if the dwellers refuse to abandon Thai-style submission and have no faith in their basic rights. Somehow, they also need help from the law leaders by leading the way as local community development plan. Solving way for problems and conflicts Before its too late, local community and local entrepreneurs should get together to come up with a common plan and agreement on what they wish to see their communities grow into. They must draw up a list of problems that need to be mentioning both long-short term challenges. Some order is needed to save these sites from becoming too freely developed, which would set a threat to the very structure of the uniqueness and charm of these places. On the other hand, tourists must be sensitive while visiting such sites and try, as much as possible, to support genuine local products and services (Bangkok Post, 2010) It would be encouraging if these tourists learn more about the unique history of the place they visit and bring back whatever aspects they see as positive to apply to their own city environment. Eventually, all places develop and its a challenge to ensure these unique markets or community evolves in a way that is sympathetic to way of ancestor living. Local community will benefit from encourage tourists more sensitive cultural tourism. Conclusions Cultural tourism as nostalgia for the past grows, many tourists lead to places like Suphan Buris Samchuk market, or the Amphawa floating market as the houses have architectural value for studying and travelling for the next generation. They are traditional wooden Thai style houses. An architecture style reflects way of life of people in Amphawa as river and canal since long time up to present based community. It is a uniqueness of riverside settlement of people in the past. Therefore, it is understandable why the yearning for something less efficient and retrospective is growing. Tourism provides a benefic to local community as high standard of local people living and also all of developing, managing encourage local people to develop new skills and knowledge which can assist them to support effectively in support of their traditional cultures and ways of life. The growth in the community also helps reduce the population in the capital due to they can own living by themselves. However, mostly of Thai framing communities who rely on earth and water to survive often have to compete with the tourism industry progressively for preserving to land and other essential resources. This makes life even more challenging if no control and standard makes community lost direction to use tourism as a tool to improve the quality of life. Environment and natural resources will be destroyed for trade exploitation without concerning and restoration as well. Therefore, this paper may make foreign and Thai visitors come to know and value cultural significance of historic setting in Amphawa community and protect traditional way of life as well as cultural structure from the past to present of riverside people.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Desire for Intoxication Leads to Destruction Through time, people all over the world have looked for ways to feel intoxicated and alter their consciousness for different reasons. One of the most ancient ways people have reached this state of intoxication has been through the popular marijuana plant. Today this plant has become so widely accepted that it has been legalized in a few states and will most likely be legalized in other states, such as California and Maine, even though it is prohibited by federal law. Advocates claim it has medicinal properties, and that the drug may actually be beneficial to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. But even though many people argue that feeling intoxicated relaxes them and alleviates their pain, research and past incidents have proven that the desire to be intoxicated has more damaging effects than positive ones. In his book The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan looks at four different desires: beauty, control, intoxication, and sweetness, each represented by a plant . Each plant has either evolved or has been modified to fulfill a desire craved by human beings. Pollan shows us how the desire for sweetness is represented by the apple, beauty by the tulip, control by the potato, and the desire for intoxication by marijuana. In this book, Pollan explains how marijuana became modified through time to fit the different needs and expectations of consumers worldwide. Putting it in PollanÃ¢â¬â¢s own words, Ã¢â¬Å"cannabis had to do two things: it had to prove it could gratify a human desire so brilliantly that people would take extraordinary risks to cultivate it, and it had to find the right combination of genes to adapt to a most peculiar and thoroughly artificial new environmentÃ¢â¬ ( 130). Marijuana was here to stay... ... A. Kallen. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2006. At Issue. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2002. Print. Works Cited Hadly, Scott. Ã¢â¬Å"CHP Officer remains in critical condition. Ventura County Star. 21 Dec. 2007. Web. 29 Oct. 2010 Huff, Charlotte. "A risky decision: with marijuana, your good judgment may go up in smoke." Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader publication Feb. 2010: 20+. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. Marijuana Policy Project. "Medical Marijuana Should Be Legalized." Legalizing Drugs. Ed. Stuart A. Kallen. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2006. At Issue. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 Nov. 2010. Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2002. Print.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In the early days of capitalism employers, in their struggle for maximum profits, were able to act with almost complete ruthlessness in their treatment of workers. They could take advantage of every rise of unemployment or inflow of immigrant workers to reduce wages to a bare minimum, using the lock-out if necessary to starve workers into submission. They imposed excessive hours of labor and ordered temporary extensions of normal hours without giving overtime pay. They employed workers in overcrowded and unsanitary factories and workshops, and exposed them to frequent accidents from dangerous machinery. They introduced new working processes and machinery at will, often replacing men by lower-paid women and children. Factory discipline was like that of a military force, and workers who Ã¢â¬ËmutiniedÃ¢â¬â¢ could be sacked and, by arrangement with other employers, blacklisted, so that they could not get work elsewhere. Employers accepted no responsibility for payment of wages during sickness, and workers sacked or disabled had to rely on their own resources. Trade unions were formed to resist these pressures. The basic idea was that, by combining together, workers could get better terms, protect individuals against victimization and provide payments out of union funds during strikes or lockouts. As the immediate consequence of successful union action was to reduce the employersÃ¢â¬â¢ profits, their reaction was predictable and they did everything they could to crush the unions. They got the government and Parliament to declare the unions illegal for organizations under laws carrying savage penalties. They declared that British industry would be ruined by the unions and the workers would become unemployed. They had the backing of the church and of most economists in their anti-union campaign, yet so desperate was the condition of the workers that unions went on being formed and operating. Unable to suppress them the government finally, in 1824, made them legal. Employers have come to learn that trade unions can be useful to them. Now only a few employers and eccentric capitalists are anti-union. Most employers, especially the bigger ones, including the nationalized industries and the government, accept trade unions as Ã¢â¬Å"social partnersÃ¢â¬ whose joint task it is to see that industry runs smoothly and with a minimum of industrial trouble. Employers have had to come to terms with trade unions and strikes. In return for recognition (sole bargaining rights, compulsory union membership and sometimes the deduction of dues from wages and representation on various joint committees) trade unions are expected to keep their members in order and, if necessary, discipline them: for example, if they interrupt production by going on unofficial strike. Most unions in Britain today are prepared to accept such a deal. The question arises to what extent modern trade unions can still be regarded as democratic organizations, in the sense of being run by and for the workers. That the unions do provide a service for their members cannot be denied. What is relevant in this context is the extent to which trade unions are run by their members. Most unions have formal democratic constitutions which provide for a wide degree of membership participation and democratic control. In practice however, these provisions are sometimes ineffective and actual control of many unions is in the hands of a well-entrenched full-time leadership. It is these leaders who frequently collaborate with the State and employers in the administration of capitalism; who get involved in supporting political parties and governments which act against the interest of the working class. But it would be wrong to write off the unions as anti-working-class organizations. The union has indeed tended to become an institution apart from its members; but the policy of a union is still influenced by the views of its members. A union is only as strong as its members. For without their participation at the place of work, and without their willingness to go on strike or take some other form of industrial action, a union would be in a weakened position with regard to the employer. Although the First International lasted for only a few years it left behind unions in many countries which appreciated the need for international organization, leading in 1901 to the formation of the International Federation of Trade Unions representing for each country national federations like the TUC. At the same time international organizations were formed representing unions in particular industries, such as the miners, the transport workers, engineering workers, etc. The statutory recognition rights provided by the Employment Relations Act 1999 appear to offer substantial new legal support for trade unions in Britain. It is, however, far from clear how substantial this support will prove to be in practice, or how far it will alter the extent and conduct of collective bargaining. There have already been some broad-ranging analyses in anticipation of the legislation (McCarthy, 1999; Wood & Godard, 1999; Towers, 1999). Although the law increasingly acknowledges alternative forms of employee representation, the promotion of collective bargaining through a recognized trade union is Ã¢â¬Ëstill the favored means of advancing the interests of both unions and workersÃ¢â¬â¢ (McCarthy, 2000). There are inherent difficulties in using legal sanctions to bring parties to the bargaining table; the 1999 Act, accordingly, holds the threat of statutory recognition in reserve for situations where the parties have failed to make provision for voluntary recognition. This Ã¢â¬ËproceduralÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasis means that, on close inspection, what appears to be a statutory right to recognition is in fact nothing of the sort. The Act is therefore likely to disappoint those who see it as the harbinger of a new right to collective bargaining. The new recognition procedure arguably makes more sense as part of a wider package of measures aimed at advancing Ã¢â¬ËpartnershipÃ¢â¬â¢ at work. However, this is not necessarily consistent with the priority given to the recognized trade union as the preferred model of employee representation. The problem is not simply that the new law will have little or no impact on workplaces where union influence, while significant, is nevertheless far below the membership thresholds set for statutory recognition. Even where the union can show majority support within the relevant bargaining unit, the new law does little to promote an active, continuing dialogue between the parties. This is in contrast to the alternative Ã¢â¬Ëinformation and consultationÃ¢â¬â¢ model of employee representation which is found in various forms in mainland Europe and which has enjoyed, from time to time, the support of the TUC. This approach arguably has the potential to promote partnership based on dialogue in many more workplaces than those which will be affected by the new recognition law, and, indirectly, to widen the range of matters over which bargaining takes place. A natural assumption might be that the act of trade union recognition is clear-cut. A reasonable starting point would be that it is comparable with other acts of legitimation or authorization of status such as the granting of citizenship, or the granting of diplomatic recognition to a foreign government. By such actions governments provide access to a range of rights which are in principle both defined and enforceable and, furthermore, relate to third parties. Employers, however, are very different from governments. The rights that they can grant to trade unions are solely with regard to transactions with themselves, and do not normally bind third parties. As a result, in the context of British labor law, the definition and enforcement of these rights is both more private and more problematic. This elusive character of recognition rights has increased with the decline of industrial agreements in Britain. Forty years ago, the granting of recognition to a union would, for the great majority of workplaces, imply at very least conformity with the appropriate industrial agreement. With this conformity would come not only substantive rights to such things as pay and hours minima, but also procedural rights to union representation, both in individual disciplinary procedures and in collective procedures to vary the agreements. Today, with a few exceptions (such as in the electrical contracting, construction, and knitwear industries) such agreements have largely disappeared. They now cover only a small proportion of the minority of British employees who are still covered by any sort of collective bargaining (Cully & Woodland, 1998). For nearly 70 per cent of all those covered by collective bargaining, and for over 80 per cent of all those covered within the private sector, bargaining is conducted not by sector or industry, but at the level of the individual enterprise, or of some subordinate part of it (Brown et al. 2000). Bargaining at the level of the enterprise does not necessarily precede on the basis of formally defined recognition rights. The law does not require a recognition agreement to be in writing. Formal acknowledgement of a unionÃ¢â¬â¢s rights often amounts to little more than the specification of its role in a grievance or discipline procedure, or giving it a named role in consultation procedures. There may be no written document indicating that a union has negotiation rights on specified issues. Even where a union plays a substantial role of representation and bargaining within an enterprise, there may be few clues to such an entitlement from anything that has been written down. Whether or not anything is written down, the status granted to a union by an employer is not a black-and-white issue. It is, as we see further below, a matter of degree. The depth of trade union recognition granted by an employer depends, in part, upon the scope of bargaining, which is another way of describing the range of issues on which bargaining is permitted (Clegg, 1976). Other aspects of the depth of recognition include the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s predisposition to make concessions during collective bargaining, the facilities that are offered to trade unions, the extent to which the bargaining relationship is formalized, and the extent to which the employer communicates with employees other than through union channels. The mere fact that an employer has granted union recognition tells one little about the practical value of that to the trade union in terms of effective collective bargaining. There are various legal concepts of recognition, the meanings of which depend on the purpose they are meant to serve. Recognition may be a passport not just to collective bargaining but to certain statutory rights. If an employer voluntarily recognizes a union, it comes under a statutory obligation to consult representatives of that union before making certain redundancies; where there is a transfer of the undertaking; before contracting-out of the state earnings-related pension scheme; and in relation to health and safety matters (Deakin & Morris, 2001). Recognition also entitles the union to claim disclosure of information for collective bargaining purposes, and entitles union members to time off for certain activities. In these contexts, Ã¢â¬ËrecognitionÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to Ã¢â¬Ëthe recognition of the union by an employer, or two or more associated employers, to any extent, for the purposes of collective bargainingÃ¢â¬â¢. Collective bargaining is defined as Ã¢â¬Ënegotiations relating to or connected withÃ¢â¬â¢ a range of matters grouped under seven categories and including, inter alia, terms and conditions of employment; the physical conditions of work; engagement; termination; allocation of work; discipline; trade union membership; trade union facilities; and machinery for negotiation or consultation (Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, s. 78). It is sufficient that the employer negotiated with a union on any one of these matters for the union to be recognized in this sense. With the passage of the 1999 Act, an additional definition of recognition was needed, one which would identify those matters over which the employer would have a duty to bargain. Essentially, this means that the scope of matters over which statutory recognition arises are narrower than the range of matters which the law associates with the practice of voluntary recognition. Thus, the nature of the power relationship between the employer and the trade union will continue to be highly relevant in determining the scope and extent of bargaining, just as it was prior to the coming into force of the new procedure. There are several other respects in which the new statutory right to recognition is tightly circumscribed. In particular, an application for statutory recognition can only be lodged in respect of bargaining units over which there is not, already, a voluntary recognition agreement. More specifically, a union which is, itself, already recognized over any one of Ã¢â¬Ëpay, hours or holidaysÃ¢â¬â¢ (emphasis added) (Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, Sched. A1, para. 35(2) (b)) is apparently barred from bringing a claim for statutory recognition in respect of the relevant bargaining unit. Nor can a union use the statutory procedures to challenge a rival, incumbent union, unless that union is non-independent, and even then, the procedure for statutory derecognition is highly complex (Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, Sched.Ã A1, Part VI). At first sight, the new procedure enshrines a right to recognition over pay, hours and holidays for unions which can show that they have majority support in the relevant bargaining unit. On closer inspection, this right is far from universal since it only arises in respect of bargaining units where either no union is recognized or where the matters over which recognition has been conceded do not cover any part of the statutory core of Ã¢â¬Ëpay, hours and holidaysÃ¢â¬â¢. Moreover, it is in essence a right to invoke a procedure rather than a right to achieve a particular outcome. An employer can avoid the imposition of a statutory order by making a voluntary agreement at one of a number of stages within the recognition procedure. If this occurs, the union can hold out for bargaining over the statutory core, knowing that, if it can show majority support in a ballot or otherwise, the CAC must grant it a declaration of statutory recognition. However, the content of statutory recognition is then dependent on the remedies which are made available against a recalcitrant employer.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Susan B. Anthony, Women's Suffrage Activist Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820Ã¢â¬âMarch 13, 1906) was an activist, reformer, teacher, lecturer, and key spokesperson for the woman suffrage and womens rights movements of the 19th century. Together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, her lifelong partner in political organizing, Anthony played a pivotal role in the activism that led to American women gaining the right to vote. Fast Facts: Susan B. Anthony Known For:Ã Key spokesperson for the 19th-century womens suffrage movement, probably the best-known of the suffragistsAlso Known As:Ã Susan Brownell AnthonyBorn:Ã February 15, 1820 in Adams, MassachusettsParents: Daniel Anthony and Lucy ReadDied:Ã March 13, 1906 in Rochester, New YorkEducation: A district school, a local school set up by her father, a Quaker boarding school in PhiladelphiaPublished Works:Ã History of Woman Suffrage, The Trial of Susan B. AnthonyAwards and Honors: The Susan B. Anthony dollarNotable Quote: It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union. Early Life Susan B. Anthony was born in Massachusetts on February 15, 1820. Her family moved to Battenville,Ã New York when Susan was 6 years old. She was raised as a Quaker. Her father Daniel was a farmer and then a cotton mill owner, while her mothers family had served in the American Revolution and worked in the Massachusetts government. Her family was politically engaged and her parents and several siblings were active in both the abolitionist and temperance movements. In her home, she met such towering figures of the abolitionist movement as Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison, who were friends with her father. Education Susan attended a district school, then a local school set up by her father, and then a Quaker boarding school near Philadelphia.Ã She had to leave school to work to assist her family after they suffered a steep financial loss. Anthony taught for a few years at a Quaker seminary. At the age of 26, she became a headmistress at the womens division of the Canajoharie Academy. She then worked briefly for the family farm before devoting herself full-time to activism, making her living off of speakers fees. Early Activism When she was 16 and 17 years old, Susan B. Anthony began circulating anti-slavery petitions.Ã She worked for a while as the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. Like many other women abolitionists, she began to see that in the Ã¢â¬Å"aristocracy of sexÃ¢â¬ ¦woman finds a political master in her father, husband, brother, son.Ã¢â¬ In 1848, the first WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Convention in the U.S. was held atÃ Seneca Falls, New York, launching the womens suffrage movement. Susan B. Anthony was teaching and did not attend. A few years later in 1851, Susan B. Anthony met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the Conventions organizers, when they both were attending an anti-slavery meeting also at Seneca Falls. Anthony was involved in the temperance movement at the time. Because Anthony was not permitted to speak at a general temperance meeting, she and Stanton formed the Womens New York State Temperance Society in 1852. Working With Elizabeth Cady Stanton Stanton and Anthony formed a 50-year lifelong working partnership. Stanton, married and a mother to a number of children, served as the writer and theorist of the two. Anthony, never married, was more often the organizer and the one who traveled, spoke widely, and bore the brunt of antagonistic public opinion. Anthony was good at strategy. Her discipline, energy, and ability to organize made her a strong and successful leader.Ã During some periods of her activism, Anthony gave as many as 75 to 100 speeches a year. Post War After the Civil War, Anthony was greatly discouraged that those working for suffrage for black Americans were willing to continue to exclude women from voting rights. She and Stanton thus became more focused on woman suffrage. She helped to found the American Equal Rights Association in 1866. In 1868, with Stanton as editor, Anthony became the publisher of The Revolution. Stanton and Anthony founded the National Woman Suffrage Association, larger than its rival American Woman Suffrage Association, associated with Lucy Stone. The two groups would eventually merge in 1890. Over her long career, Anthony appeared before every Congress between 1869 and 1906 on behalf of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage. Working for Womens Rights Other Than Suffrage Susan B. Anthony advocated for womens rights on other fronts besides suffrage. These new rights included the right of a woman to divorce an abusive husband, the right to have guardianship of her children, and the right for women to be paid equal to men. Her advocacy contributed to the 1860 passage of the Married Womens Property Act, which gave married women the right to own separate property, enter into contracts, and be joint guardians of their children. Much of this bill was unfortunately rolled back after the Civil War. Test Vote In 1872, in an attempt to claim that the constitution already permitted women to vote, Susan B. Anthony cast a test vote in Rochester, New York, in the presidential election. With a group of 14 other women in Rochester, New York, she registered to vote at a local barbershop, part of the New Departure strategy of the woman suffrage movement. On November 28, the 15 women and the registrars were arrested. Anthony contended that women already had the constitutional right to vote. The court disagreed inÃ United States v. Susan B. Anthony. She was found guilty, though she refused to pay the resulting fine (and no attempt was made to force her to do so). Abortion Stance In her writings, Susan B. Anthony occasionally mentioned abortion. She opposed abortion, which at the time was an unsafe medical procedure for women, endangering their health and life. She blamed men, laws, and the double standard for driving women to abortion because they had no other options. When a woman destroys the life of her unborn child, it is a sign that, by education or circumstances, she has been greatly wronged, she wrote in 1869. Anthony believed, as did many of the feminists of her era, that only the achievement of womens equality and freedom would end the need for abortion. Anthony used her anti-abortion writings as yet another argument for womens rights. Controversial Views Some of Susan B. Anthonys writings could be considered racist by todays standards, particularly her writings from the period when she was angry that the 15th Amendment had written the word male into the constitution for the first time in permitting suffrage for freedmen. She sometimes argued that educated white women would be better voters than ignorant black men or immigrant men. In the late 1860s, she even portrayed the vote of freedmen as threatening the safety of white women. George Francis Train, whose capital helped launch Anthony and Stantons The Revolution newspaper, was a noted racist. Later Years In her later years, Susan B. Anthony worked closely with Carrie Chapman Catt. Anthony retired from active leadership of the suffrage movement in 1900 and turned over the presidency of the NAWSA to Catt. She worked with Stanton and Mathilda Gage on what would eventually be the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage. By the time she was 80 years old, even though woman suffrage was far from won, Anthony was acknowledged as an important public figure. Out of respect, President William McKinleyÃ invited her to celebrate her birthday at the White House. She also met with President Theodore Roosevelt to argue that a suffrage amendment be submitted to Congress. Death A few months before her death in 1906, Susan B. Anthony delivered her Failure Is Impossible speech at her 86th birthday celebration in Washington, D.C. She died of heart failure and pneumonia at home in Rochester, New York. Legacy Susan B. Anthony died 14 years before all U.S. women won the right to vote with the 1920 passage of the 19thÃ Amendment. Although she did not live to see womens suffrage achieved across the entire United States, Susan B. Anthony was a key worker in laying the groundwork for this change. And she did live to witness the sea change in attitudes that was requisite for universal suffrage. In 1979, Susan B. Anthonys image was chosen for the new dollar coin, making her the first woman to be depicted on U.S. currency. The size of the dollar was, however, close to that of the quarter, and the Anthony dollar never became very popular. In 1999 the U.S. government announced the replacement of the Susan B. Anthony dollar with one featuring the image of Sacagawea. Sources Anthony, Susan B.Ã The Trial of Susan B. Anthony.Ã Humanity Books, 2003.Hayward, Nancy. Ã¢â¬Å"Susan B. Anthony.Ã¢â¬ National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s History Museum, 2017.Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Ann De Gordon, and Susan B. Anthony.Ã Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840-1866. Rutgers University Press, 1997.Ward, Geoffery C. and Ken Burns.Ã Not For Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Knopf, 2001.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
alcohol essays ...A CAPITAL OR OTHERWISE INFAMOUS CRIME... ... NOR BE DEPRIVED OF LIFE ... WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW... THE DEATH PENALTY UPHOLD THE CONSTITUTION BY PROTECTING THE PUBLIC AND RIDDING THE COUNTRY OF OFFENDERS WITH DUE PROCESS OF LAW. From 1882 through 1951 there were 4,730 recorded lynchings by vigilantes in the U.S, with many of them being highly public affairs. Even when miscreants were afforded a trial and executed in accordance with law, such events were often local in nature. For example, while states such as New York electrocuted condemned prisoners at Sing Sings electric chair as early as the late 19th century, in states such as Missouri hangings were conducted at local county jails as late as 1937. The race and the crime seem to play a huge role in the determination of the sentencing. For example if a black male had stolen like a candy bar out of a store, and got 10 years, that proves its more than likely an issue of race than the crime. But also if a black man murders someone, the death penalty is probably going to be a sentence, and a sentence of justice in my opinion. In a lot of state death penalty cases, the race of the victim is much more important than the prior criminal record of the defendant, or the actual circumstances of the crime. A study by the Bureau of Justice stated that more than one-half of people the people on death row are of color. Race and the crime are a very important factor in determining who is going to be sentenced to die. Several studies have been shown that the role of race in the death penalty, they include a study in 1990, a report from the General Accounting Office that stated that in 82 of the cases reviewed the race of the victim was found to influence the punishment for the crime. A black man who kills a white person is 11 times more likely to receive a death sentence than if a white person kills a black stated John Monty of the Bureau of Jus...